CIPD Level 5 Assignment Example: 5CO02 Evidence Based Practice
What you will learn
5CO02 evidence based practice focuses on problem solving approaches utilized in HR and L&D that form critical base in decision making. Students are taught the importance of using qualitative and quantitative information analysis for decision making. Also, how organizations can create value by measuring impact of people practice.
At the end of module, learners are expected to be able to understand and apply tools, methods and concepts of evidence based practices in diagnosing issues, setbacks and opportunities facing an organization. Secondly, students gain better understanding on principles of critical thinking and how different ethical models lead to differed decision making. Thirdly, students should be able to assess the risks, benefits and implications of people practice decisions or solutions. Lastly, learners should be able to collect key data and scrutinize systems to be able to do impact and value analysis of people practice contribution to an organization. Using qualitative and quantitative information managers should be able to determine cost benefit analysis of people practice contribution.
1.1 Evaluate evidence-based practice, including how it can be applied to decision-making in people’s practice.
In most organizational settings, managers or practitioners base their decisions on critical thinking and personal experience. However, personal judgment alone is not a reliable source due to susceptibility to systemic errors that influence biases which affect the quality of decisions made. Evidence-based practice is an approach in which managers evaluate evidence and use the best available evidence in conjunction with their expertise to inform decision-making (Barends et al., 2014).
When using EBP in decision-making in People Practice, all evidence from various sources, including scientific research, business indicators or professional experience, is synthesized and evaluated concerning various employee or client preferences, claims, or hypotheses. Using a six-step method (Asking, Acquiring, Appraising, Aggregating, Applying, and Assessing), practitioners assess the trustworthiness of evidence and ensure decisions are based on reliable evidence (The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2022). It leads to improved practice quality and reduced cost in People’s Practice.
1.2 Evaluate a range of analysis tools and methods, including how they can be applied to diagnose organizational issues, challenges, and opportunities
In organizational diagnosis, managers or consultants utilize a range of conceptual models and applied research methods to establish issues, challenges, and opportunities facing the organization. Diagnosis enables decision-makers to develop workable proposals for organizational change and improvement. Several approaches applied in organizational diagnosis include:
- Questionnaires: They are useful research tools used to collect information from respondents that help measure their preferences, attitudes, behavior, and opinions in decision-making (Dzwigol, 2020). An organization can utilize self-administered structured or semi-structured questionnaires to gather information about a particular issue or topic.
- Interviews: This qualitative research technique involves two or more persons where the interviewer asks open-ended questions to converse and collect information from the respondents.
- Observations: data is collected through observation of people and work settings. The researcher observes and records the behavior, interactions, and activities to develop an understanding of the element of the study.
- Analysis of records, appraisal reports, and other organization documentation: This approach evaluates previous business records such as audit reports, management correspondence, and other communications to gain further insights into the organization’s state.
- SWOT analysis: an organization can use this tool to understand its internal capabilities and external environment. The analysis informs on how to invest resources, take advantage of opportunities, minimize weaknesses, and reduce the impacts of organizational threats.
1. 3 Explain the principles of critical thinking, including how you apply these to your own and others’ ideas.
Critical thinking is a process directed toward analyzing and evaluating existing information and arguments through logic and reason to develop logical conclusions (Heard et al., 2020). It involves the analysis of an issue and examining the assumptions and alternatives. One follows a set of principles that underlies critical thinking in applying logical reasoning in own and other’s ideas that include:
- Analyzing: Involves intellectualization of the problem to be solved, a question from which the answer is sought, and a breakdown of various components of the problem. Thinking critically, a person analyzes their and others’ ideas by asking questions to understand them clearly.
- Evaluating: critical thinking involves an assessment of the argument based on relevant evidence or credible sources and accurate facts. Examining the arguments’ implications or merits is carried out to make informed judgments on actions or directions.
- Reasoning: it infers the ability to come up with a conclusion from multiple premises. The logical relationship between evidence and idea or statements is established, which helps draw conclusions.
- Reflecting: the conclusion made is once tested by overt or imaginative action. The implications and consequences of the decision are considered before application or response.
1.4 Explain a range of decision-making processes
Decision-making is an integral part of management and critical to organizational success. In People Practice, it enables gathering information n and assessing alternative resolutions in leading, directing, and controlling workers. Managers can utilize a range of decision-making processes to inform practices that include:
- Brainstorming: a group technique where efforts are made to come up with a conclusion for a particular issue or problem by gathering a list of ideas to be evaluated (Rawlinson, 2017). Members are allowed to think freely and suggest as many ideas as possible.
- Delphi technique: this decision-making process involves knowledgeable contributors who make an individual response to questions and submits results to a central coordinator. The coordinator processes the responses examining major and extreme tendencies, and sends feedback back to respondents to resubmit their views. The coordinator continues the process until a consensus is reached. The technique eliminates bias that may arise if group of experts meets.
- Force field analysis: this approach, associated with German social psychologist Kurt Lewin, lists all factors for and against a decision and determines which comes up best ( Swinton, nd). If a decision for or against is not clear, a process is repeated with new conditions to come up with a precise decision.
- Six thinking hats: The approach looks at decisions from various perspectives. Participants are given a ‘hat’ and asked to view the conclusion from a particular perspective. It enables analyzing a problem more effectively, ensuring all angles are considered.
1.5 Assess how different ethical perspectives can influence decision-making.
Ethics play a significant role in organizations and society; it shapes our behavior and action. People are inclined to various schools of thought that determine their ethical perspectives. Ethical perspectives shape our values and beliefs that define how we interact with others and situations. The difference in ethical perspectives creates variations in our moral obligations and behavior and affects decision-making. For instance, a person with a utilitarian perspective considers actions that create greater good for the greatest number of people. Thus, when making a decision, the person weighs the different utility to be produced by their action to come up with a logical conclusion.
On the other hand, a person inclined to deontological ethics does not consider the consequences of the action but the obligation to perform it. Thus, in drawing a logical conclusion, the person has the ethical duty to act irrespective of the good or bad that the action will generate. Therefore, ethical perspectives should be considered in decision-making regardless of the degree of the decision.
2.1 With reference to a people practice issue, interpret analytical data using appropriate analysis tools and methods
Analytical data is an important asset to an organization as it is used in making key business decisions. Thus, appropriate analysis tools and methods must produce more accurate and useful data. Various people practice issues such as diversity and inclusion, and employee engagement can be analyzed using multiple tools. For instance, a survey can be used for employee engagement data using parameters such as commitment, job satisfaction, and motivation (Byrne et al., 2017).
Using qualitative and quantitative analysis tools such as regression and factor analysis, the data can be analyzed for correlations and patterns for various aspects of employee engagement. Thus, managers can identify which factor is creating employee engagement or the ones that require improvement to enhance employee engagement. While the parameters to be analyzed to assess employee engagement may vary from one organization to another, the tools chosen to collect and analyze data can vary.
2.2. Present key findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives.
People practice activities play a critical role in an organization, create a positive work environment, and improve employee engagement and productivity. Employees feel supported, engaged, and appreciated if an organization focuses on enhancing various people practice activities and initiatives such as communication, training and development, employee engagement, leadership, rewards and recognition, and helping employees achieve a work-life balance. As a result, employee morale, productivity, and loyalty are improved.
According to Kocherlakota (2015), engaged employees give an organization a competitive advantage with increased productivity and lower employee turnover. Additionally, an organization develops a supportive, dynamic, and conducive work environment that values its human capital and seeks to acquire the best from them.
2.3 Make justified recommendations based on the evaluation of the benefits, risks, and financial implications of potential solutions.
Deciding on people’s practice activities and initiatives is a difficult process mainly because of potential solutions’ various benefits, risks, and financial implications. Thus, it requires evaluating all evidence and reliable information to make informed decisions. When assessing the benefits of potential solutions, it is worth considering both the short-term and long-term benefits of a possible solution. Some short-term benefits include profitability and efficiency, while long-term benefits include greater market share and customer satisfaction. Thus, an option with greater outcomes per organization expectations is worth consideration.
In addition to benefits, considering the risks of a potential solution is important during decision-making. Risks of the potential solution may be associated with its implementation or long-term effects on employees or the organization. These risks include unexpected costs or employee dissatisfaction, which may have far-reaching consequences for an organization. Finally, the financial implication associated with the potential solution is worth considering. It may relate to the implementation costs and other short-term and long-term financial needs. Thus, to assess the viability of the possible solution, these key factors should be considered.
3.1 Appraise different ways organizations measure financial and non-financial performance.
Financial performance measures ascertain how an organization utilizes assets from operations to generate revenue; such tools include profit margin and return on asset. On the other hand, non-financial performance measures ascertain a firm’s success and performance in a particular area without basing it on financial metrics such as employee satisfaction and market share.
- Profit margin: as a financial tool, the gross and net profit margin is an efficient measure of a company’s effectiveness in generating profit from revenue. However, profit margin must be used alongside other measures, such as return on assets and cash flow, to better understand the overall firm’s financial performance.
- Return on asset: the value is calculated by dividing the company’s net income by the total assets (Jefriyanto, 2021). A high return on assets indicates more overall company efficiency and profitability. The measure is significant as it enables a firm to compare with others.
- Employee satisfaction: Employee satisfaction is a factor of various elements, including engagement and development. Engaged workers are highly productive, while disengaged workers have higher turnover and reduced productivity. Thus, it is vital to measure organizational employee satisfaction as a non-financial performance indicator.
- Market share: this indicator measures the relative percentage of a firm’s sales relative to competitors. It’s an important tool, especially in a competitive tool, as it reveals various trends in customer preferences and the market.
3.2 Explain how to measure the impact and value of people’s practice using a variety of methods
Organizations measure the impact and value of people’s practices using various methods to make necessary changes to make employees feel valued and supported. The different elements of employee performance, such as engagement and satisfaction, can be measured using tools that include employee engagement and employee satisfaction surveys.
- Employee engagement survey: it contains a subset of questions that are used to determine employee engagement. The tool helps organizations understand how employees feel about their role and develop changes to improve.
- Employee satisfaction survey: The tool establishes how employees feel about their position in the company and work environment. It gives insight to the employer on various working conditions.
Barends, E., Briner, R. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (2014). Evidence Based Management: The Basic Principles. Amsterdam, The Nerthelands; Center for Evidence-Based Management.
Byrne, Z. S., Hayes, T. L., & Holcombe, K. J. (2017, June 30). Employee Engagement Using the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey. Public Personnel Management, 46(4), 368–390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026017717242
Dzwigol, H. (2020). Tools for Adjusting Research Methods and Techniques to Research Processes. Economic Herald of the Donbas, 4 (62), 110–118. https://doi.org/10.12958/1817-3772-2020-4(62)-110-118
Heard J., Scoular, C., Duckworth, D., Ramalingam, D., & Teo, I. (2020). Critical thinking:
Skill development framework. Australian Council for Educational Research.
Jefriyanto, J. (2021, April 30). Perbandingan Return on Asset, Return on Equity, Gross Profit Margin, Operating Profit Margin, dan Net Profit Margin Sebelum dan Semasa COVID-19 Pada PT Matahari Department Store, Tbk. Jurnal Ilmiah Akuntansi Kesatuan, 9(1), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.37641/jiakes.v9i1.464
Kocherlakota, S. D. (2015). Employee Commitment: A Giant Leap in Employee Engagement. OPUS: HR Journal, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.21863/opus/2015.6.1.003
Rawlinson, J. G. (2017). Successful brainstorming. Creative Thinking and Brainstorming, 55–68. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315259000-3
Swinton , L. (n.d.). Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis: Decision Making Made Easy.
The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2022, April 14). Evidence-based practice for effective decision-making: Factsheets. CIPD. Retrieved February 13, 2023, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/analytics/evidence-based-practice-factsheet#gref
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