According to ILO, wellbeing at work refers to every aspect of working life. These include the quality and safety of the physical working environment, how employees feel about their work and organization etc. As HR practitioner you understand the importance of creating a healthy working places and increased productivity. Therefore, it is important to create a positive work environment to achieve happiness and well-being.
Well-being at work is emerging as a strong pillar in CIPD profession thus the need to ensure all CIPD graduates are knowledgeable with creating healthy workplaces. In this module, students explore the importance of well-being in workplaces; link between work, health and well-being, and how it relates to organizational strategy. Lastly, it covers how to develop and measure outcomes of well-being programs through involving stakeholders, employers and employees
Our CIPD Level 5OS07 Well-Being At Work Assignment Example prepares learners to successfully answer CIPD Level 5OS07 Well-Being At Work assessments like expert HR practitioners.
5OS07 Assignment Task 1: Understand wellbeing and its relevance to workplaces.
1.1 Evaluate issues and key theories in well-being at work
Human resources are the most valuable resources in an organization and should be appreciated (International Labor Organization, n.d.). Lack of commitment to addressing their emotional, physical, psychological, and social needs results in workplace issues. A mismatch between work demands and employees’ skills and abilities, including heavy workloads and long hours, leads to work-related stress that triggers emotional and physical responses. Also, workers’ job satisfaction relates to their well-being. Happy employees express high job satisfaction and perform well, while unsatisfied employees feel unmotivated and unhappy with the company. In addition, well-being at work relates to employees’ work-life balance. The harmony between work and personal life significantly affects employees’ health.
Various theories help understand and address these issues and improve well-being at work. Job-demand-control-support model coined by Karasek and Theorell explains how job characteristics such as work-related stress affect workers’ psychological well-being (Shao et al., 2022). According to the theory, job demands such as role ambiguity, heavy load lead to heightened stress levels in employees.
In addition, Frederick Herzberg proposes a two-factor theory that explains two factors, i.e., motivation and hygiene factors, which cause employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Other theories include PERMA theory of well being and centredness theory
PERMA theory of well-being
PERMA Theory of well being was developed by Martin Seligman who sought to explain what constitutes healthy sense of well-being and satisfaction in life. In his theory, Martin explains the five main components of well-being that include positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning and accomplishment. According to the theory, positive emotion is feeling good, optimistic and hopeful about the future.
Engagement is defined as an individual experience to use the whole being to utilize their skill, attention and strength to accomplish specific task. Relationship is defined as a major factor in pursuit of happiness and well-being. It is for this reason that individuals feel sense of belonging and love by interacting with specific group. The fourth element is meaning. The theory postulates that for individuals who pursue purpose and meaning from the activities they perform experience sense of well-being. The last element is accomplishment that entails success, sense of achievement.
The theory is based on systems approach to explain how individuals attain happiness and well-being. The theory postulates that individual’s well-being is interplay of different aspects that span across domains of an individual’s life. These five core domains include community, work, family, relationships and self (Bloch-Jorgensen, Cilione, Yeung and Gatt, 2018). According to the theory, individuals need to increase pleasure, and reduce pain to achieve well-being.
The theory is well applied in workplace to assist employees establish a balance between intrinsic goals and external domains. Based on this theory improved well-being is achieved by being mindful and reflective, cultivating awareness and reframing stress.
The theory is plagued by drawback since it gives prominence to psychological aspects and disregards physical aspects of an individual well-being.
1.2 Explain how well-being can be managed to support organizational goals
Well-being at work is crucial in both individual and organizational performance. Well-supported employees tend to be more engaged, productive, and loyal; thus, managing well-being is fundamental for achieving organizational goals. Establishing a positive work environment through supporting employees, recognizing and rewarding efforts, promotions, teamwork, and building an enabling organizational culture can aid in achieving organizational goals. In addition, developing an employee well-being strategy can help improve and sustain employee well-being. Organizations must develop a strategy that outlines an approach and aligns with the set organizational goals and objectives.
An organization can also manage well-being by encouraging employee work-life balance. Organizations must support practices such as taking breaks, paid leave, home working, and part-time work, among others, that enable employees to develop their well-being (Zheng et al., 2015). Furthermore, an organization can provide wellness programs, including paramedic services, yoga classes, and healthy eating options.
1.3 Assess the value of adopting well-being practices in organizations
Adopting well-being practices in an organization is significant in helping employees develop healthy behaviors. Its benefits extend beyond employees to an organization as a whole. At an individual level, employees are engaged and create satisfaction with their work. In addition, they become highly productive from being happy with their work and engagement in various health programs, such as exercise programs and flexible work arrangements, which similarly increases organizational productivity. It also improves individuals’ mental and physical health. Employees are supported in managing stress and improving their overall health (Chakraborty & Mahanta, 2019), benefiting the organization from fewer sick leaves and low healthcare costs.
To an organization, adopting well-being practices results in reduced turnover rates. As a result of satisfied employees, the likelihood of staying in the organization for the long term increases, and the company incurs less recruitment and training. In addition, it increases the organization’s reputation as it is viewed as a desirable workplace.
CIPD 5OS07 Assignment Activity 2: Understand how wellbeing is shaped by the organisation’s internal and external context.
2.1 Identify how key stakeholders can contribute to improvements in well-being at work
Improving well-being at work can be a challenging task that requires the collaboration of various internal and external stakeholders. Employees are vital players who actively take responsibility for their health by raising concerns with their managers’, taking leave days, taking breaks, and participating in the organization’s well-being programs. On the other hand, managers create a positive work culture, help employees to establish a work-life balance, and raise their concerns to the management. The other internal players are employers who create a healthy work environment, develop wellness programs and offer employee career development and growth opportunities.
External players include; government agencies and unions, and worker representatives. Government agencies play a critical role by making legislation and regulatory measures and ensuring adherence to organizations. While unions and employee representatives advocate for workers’ rights, negotiate and ensure that organizations provide a safe and healthy work environment.
2.2 Explain how well-being interacts with other areas of people management practice
Well-being is an integral part of people management practice and closely relates to other areas of people management practice. In managing performance, various aspects of well-being, such as flexible working hours, overtime, and stress, are considered when developing effective supportive strategies (Atkins et al., n.d.). On the other hand, organizational learning and development foster well-being at work.
While learning opportunities give employees a sense of fulfillment and development that improves well-being, various learning programs can educate employees on wellness and help them manage work-related stress. Additionally, employee compensation and benefits affect their well-being. While fair pay and salaries allow employees to acquire resources to support their mental and physical health, additional benefits such as work-from-home arrangements and overtime contribute to employee well-being.
2.3 Analyze how organizational context shapes well-being
Organizational context comprises various structures and processes significantly impacting an individual’s well-being (Joyce et al., 2022). The impacts can be positive or negative depending on the individual element. One of the major elements in the organizational context is company culture. Company culture includes various aspects, such as inclusivity, and employee development, which affect employees’ emotional, social, and safety health, shaping their well-being. The management style also affects well-being. While some managers are supportive and encourage employee growth, others are punitive and micromanage their employees, which causes work-related stress and burnout.
In addition to management style, organizational set work policies enhance or harm employees’ well-being. Positively impacting work policies include flexible working hours and encouraging work-life balance, while heavy workloads and unrealistic deadlines harm employee health. Moreover, colleagues, mentors, coaches, or managers provide social support creating a suitable work environment that promotes well-being.
5SO07 CIPD Learning Outcome 3: Be able to develop a wellbeing programme.
3.1 Explore well-being initiatives in relation to an organization’s needs
An organization committed to the well-being of its employees focuses on creating well-being initiatives that address employees’ specific needs. Recognizing these initiatives in the contemporary business environment has become imperative as companies seek to create a healthy work environment and happy workforce. Various initiatives can be developed based on an organization’s needs.
Such initiatives include programs to encourage physical activity and health. For instance, an organization with a sedentary workforce may approach health and wellness programs such as gym membership or healthy eating programs. In addition, an organization can establish flexible working arrangements programs to encourage work-life balance (Bannikova, 2022). While an organization that seeks to address stress and burnout may develop mental health support initiatives to promote mindfulness and stress management.
3.2 Design a well-being programme relevant to the organization
An organization’s well-being program must consider employees’ physical, psychological, social, and emotional needs. For instance, a program that seeks to address the physical activity, work-life balance, and stress management needs of employees will be as follows:
The objective is to help the organization achieve its goal of achieving the physical fitness of its employee.
- Offer fitness facilities and subsidized gym membership
- Organize team fitness lessons such as yoga and Zumba
- Encourage employees’ participation in lunch break walks and use of staircases instead of elevators.
- Work-life balance
The objective is to help employees balance their work and life.
- Create flexible work arrangements that include work-from-home and flexible working hours options
- Encouraging employees to take time off
- Stress management
The objective is to help employees develop resilience and tactics to handle work pressure.
- Provide training on management tactics such as meditation and mindfulness
- Offer counseling services.
3.3 Explain how you would implement a well-being program suitable for the organization
To effectively implement a well-being program, an organization must follow several steps. These include:
- Conduct needs assessment: all information about employees’ well-being needs and preferences is collected using surveys or one-on-one interviews.
- Define program objectives and goals: Meaningful and relevant project objectives (SMART) and goals are set based on the needs identified (Ogbeiwi, 2017).
- Create a plan: Once the objectives and goals have been established, it’s time to outline the strategies and techniques to achieve them. It involves developing various activities that address specific needs.
- Communicate the program: The employees are informed about the program, its objectives, goals, and benefits in a meeting or other channels.
- Implementation: involves coordinating activities and resources by departments, teams, and employees to run the program.
- Monitoring and evaluation: Gathering feedback and evaluating various metrics to establish the program’s effectiveness.
3.4 Explain how a well-being program can be evaluated and monitored
In monitoring and evaluating a well-being program for effectiveness, a range of measures can be applied, including participation measures, organizational support, cost-effectiveness analysis, and productivity and performance measures.
- Participation measures involve checking the attendance and participation rate for various initiatives. If the attendance rates are high and consistent, employees find value and are motivated to attend.
- Organizational support can be evaluated by measuring the programs and policies towards health and leadership perception towards employee health (Grossmeier, 2015).
- Cost-effectiveness analysis involves quantifying health care cost of outcomes and comparing them with the program implementation cost.
- Productivity and performance measures assess productivity loss arising from poor employee health and overall health performance due to health status.
International Labor Organization. (n.d.). Workplace well-being. Retrieved March 31, 2023, from https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/safety-and-health-at-work/areasofwork/workplace-health-promotion-and-well-being/WCMS_118396/lang–en/index.htm
Joyce, A., Moussa, B., Elmes, A., Campbell, P., Suchowerska, R., Buick, F., Barraket, J., & Carey, G. (2022, August 27). Organisational structures and processes for health and well-being: insights from work integration social enterprise. BMC Public Health, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13920-4
Zheng, C., Molineux, J., Mirshekary, S., & Scarparo, S. (2015). Developing individual and organisational work-life balance strategies to improve employee health and Wellbeing. Employee Relations, 37(3), 354–379. https://doi.org/10.1108/er-10-2013-0142
Chakraborty, A., & Mahanta, M. (2019). Employee wellbeing – are organizations addressing it the correct way? IRA-International Journal of Management & Social Sciences (ISSN 2455-2267), 17. https://doi.org/10.21013/jmss.v14.n2sp.p3
Atkins, P. W. B., Hassed, C., & Fogliati, V. J. (n.d.). Mindfulness improves work engagement, wellbeing and performance in a university setting. Flourishing in Life, Work and Careers, 193–209. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783474103.00020
Bannikova, K. B. (2022). Effective wellbeing programs for multicultural teams. Actual Problems of Philosophy and Sociology, (37), 140–145. https://doi.org/10.32782/apfs.v037.2022.23
Bloch-Jorgensen, Z., Cilione, P., Yeung, W. and Gatt, J., 2018. Centeredness Theory: Understanding and Measuring Well-Being Across Core Life Domains. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29765344/ [Accessed 1 September 2022]
Grossmeier, J. (2015, September). Hero. Evaluating Wellness Programs: Measure the Right Things. Retrieved April 1, 2023, from https://hero-health.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Evaluating-Wellness-Programs.pdf
Ogbeiwi, O. (2017, July 2). Why written objectives need to be really SMART. British Journal of Healthcare Management, 23(7), 324–336. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjhc.2017.23.7.324
Shao, L., Guo, H., Yue, X., & Zhang, Z. (2022, May 4). Psychological Contract, Self-Efficacy, Job Stress, and Turnover Intention: A View of Job Demand-Control-Support Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.868692
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